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How Does Healthy Gum Look Like?

Healthy gum is light pink colored. It is hard consistent, the surface is scabrous like an orange skin and it holds the tooth tightly.

How Does Unhealthy Gum Look Like?

It is red, soft consistent, shiny surface, swollen and moving.

What is Periodontal disease?

So-called periodontal diseases are the diseases which affect the supporting tissues and gums around teeth. If periodontal diseases are diagnosed on time, they can be treated.

Periodontal diseases involve a wide variety such as a simple gingivitis inflammation, melting of the jaw bone, teeth lost through shaking, severe infection etc.

What Are The Symptoms Of Gum Disease?

  • Bleeding of gums while brushing,
  • Red, swollen and bleeding gums when touched,
  • The gums begin to separate from the teeth,
  • Halitosis which shows continuum,
  • Inflammation between gums and teeth,
  • The pendulation of teeth and widening the distance between teeth,
  • Change in the shape of teeth closure while biting,
  • Change in the closure of removable dentures in the mouth, etc.


The main cause of gum disease is plaque and tartar which plaque creates. Beside these, in some people, the body defense mechanisms works insufficiently in tooth and the tooth-gum area and diseases may occur. Perplexed teeth are also one of the most important factors in the occurance of tartar and dental plaque. Furthermore, genetic structure is also an important factor in the development of the disease. Nowadays, periodontal diseases are met very often due to smoking. In smoking, although the gums may seem non-bleeding and healthy at first glance, dissolution resulting from systematical deterioration of bone mineral tissue in alveolar bone surrounding the tooth is available.

Stress is one of the behavioral risk factors as oral hygiene disorder and smoking. Stress increases the affinity of individuals to the periodontal disease in the development and progression period as in all other diseases. Another factor is hormonal changes which the disease can be seen in puberty, pregnancy, menstruation and menopause period. Moreover, systemic diseases such as blood diseases, diabetes cause periodontal disease.

Perplexity of the teeth

Since perplexed teeth, whose gingival harmony is broken, can not be cleaned up as easily as regular teeth, the accumulation of plaque and tartar formation in perplexed teeth are more than regular teeth. The most important cause of gum diseases is warped and crooked teeth.

Orthodontic Closing Disorders

Closing disorders cause trauma during chewing by putting more burdens to the teeth. The bones around the teeth, which are exposed to excessive closing force, can melt due to trauma. Carious-free and healthy teeth in the mouth can be lost due to lose of supporting bone tissue of teeth.

Genetic factors

According to the researches, there is a genetic predisposition. Also, poor oral hygiene increases the possibility of developing gum disease.

Smoking and Tobacco Use

Smoking causes many major diseases such as lung cancer and heart diseases. It is also harmful to the mucous membranes and gums in the mouth. It leads to the softening of the gums and the development of gum diseases.

Medicine Use

Birth control pills, antidepressants, heart medications affect your oral health.

Hormonal Changes

You need to take care of your oral hygiene during periods of intensive hormonal changes such as pregnancy, puberty, menopause and menstruation. Your gums will be sensitive in these periods. Susceptibility to gum diseases increases. In addition, thyroid disorders can lead to periodontal problems.


As it is one of the causes of many diseases such as hypertension and cancer, stress is one of the risk factors for gum diseases. Stress makes it difficult to combat of the body versus infection including periodontal diseases.

Teeth Clenching and Gnashing

It causes periodontal tissue destruction as a result of weakening force between the teeth and gums. One of the reasons of gingival recession is teeth clenching. It can be stopped by inserting a clamping plate.


It causes weakening in immune system which leads to difficulty in fighting aginst the infections, including the gum infection. Particularly, vitamin C deficiency can lead to gum problems.


Diabetes patients are of the high risk group for periodontal infection. They have to take care of their oral hygiene intensively. Neglecting oral hygiene leads to tooth loss in the early stages.

Incompatible Crowns, Bridges and Fillings

Crowns and bridges whose gingival harmony is broken or excessive fillings create problems in the gums.

Can Periodontal Disease Be Diagnosed In Early Stage?

Periodontal disease can be diagnosed through the measurement of gingival pocket with the help periodontalsond and by assessing bone loss with panoramic X-rays in routine dental examination.



The first phase of gum disease is observed in the mouth if teeth are not brushed for 7-10 days. At this stage, gums surrounding the teeth get red, swollen and bleed easily. This stage is not too troublesome, but if it is left untreated, irreversible destructions may occur in the gums and bone tissues around teeth.


The advanced stage of gum disease reached to the bone is called Periodontitis. In this phase, a destruction occurs on supporting tissues of the teeth and jaw bones in the mouth. Because of bone loss around the teeth, deep gingival pockets and also periodontal pocket come about.

Aggressive Periodontitis

This type of periodontal disease is characterized by witnessing it at an early age, being a genetic component and the aggressive periodontal tissue destruction.

Chronic Periodontitis

Deep gingival pockets and gum recession are usually observed over 35 years old. It is progressing more slowly. However, the progress may develop fast in some cases.


All dentists are able to identify and treat periodontal diseases in the early stages of gum disease. Some of the dentists have additional knowledge and experience to treat advanced periodontal diseases, they have specialized in this area. Dentists who have this knowledge are called periodontist.

How Is Periodontal Treatment Done?

Treatment in the early stages of gum disease is often tartar cleaning and root surface smoothing (subgingival curettage). At these stages, the bacteria cell debris and tartar around the teeth are removed and the root surfaces are flattened. With this process, bacteria causing inflammation and toxic substances are removed from the oral area. Successful implementation of this process in the early stages of gum diseases are taken.

In advanced cases, a surgical intervention may require. The purposes of surgery are to heal the area by removing tartar and infected tissues in deep gingival pockets and smoothing the root surface, to take inflamed tissue out and to give proper shape for easy cleaning of the gums.

The ways of preserving the positive results obtained by Periodontal treatment are;

  • correction of perplexed teeth
  • brushing teeth
  • removing bacteria deposits from the oral environment by using interfacial brush and floss
  • using mouth shower regularly.

What To Do For Health Of Gingitivis?

  • Brush your gums three times a day and if possible after each meal with a fluoride toothpaste.
  • Use dental floss once a day (before bedtime).
  • Clean your teeth well; check if you clear it with coloring tablets.
  • Be careful about what you eat. Avoid foods including excessive refined sugar, especially the ones sticking onto your teeth. Select high-fiber foods such as green vegetables and apples.
  • Do not skimp vitamins A and C. These vitamins are found in melon, broccoli, spinach, liver, fortified dairy products, orange, grapefruit, tomato, potato and green pepper.

In addition to these, having your mouth controlled by the dentist on a regular basis is extremely important. Daily oral care can keep the formation of dental tartars in a minimum level, but it cannot completely prevent.